Once you have your application server up and running, you are going to need a good email server to deliver your emails. I have been using postfix for all my servers and below is the configuration I generally use.
Installation of Postfix on CentOS 6
yum install postfix
Sendmail is installed by default, so it is better to stop and remove it
service sendmail stop yum remove sendmail
Postfix contains two configuration files main.cf and master.cf, you will need to modify main.cf for basic configuration. Also, postfix parameters can be defined like shell variables and can be used with a dollar sign preceding them. They do not need to be defined before they are used. Postfix will only look for a parameter when it is needed at rumtime.
Uncomment the lines below
#Add the hostname of your machine myhostname = yourhostname.com #From Domain to be used when mail is sent from this linux machine myorigin = $myhostname #The network interface to receive mail on, I prefer localhost as I only want emails from this system to be delivered inet_interfaces = localhost # The protocol to use when postfix will make or accept a connection. You can use “all” if you want to enable IPv6 support inet_protocols = ipv4 #Domains to receive email for mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost #Only forward emails for the local machine and not machines on the network. mynetworks_style = host
service postfix start
This basic postfix configuration should enable your machine to send emails. You can verify the same by sending an email and checking “maillog” log file.
echo test mail | mail -s "test" firstname.lastname@example.org && sudo tail -f /var/log/maillog #Logs should output the following Aug 25 14:16:21 vps postfix/smtp: E6A372DC065D: to=<email@example.com>, relay=smtp.mailserver.org[18.104.22.168], delay=0.8, delays=0.1/0/0.43/0.27, dsn=2.0.0, status=sent (250 Great success) Aug 25 14:16:21 vps postfix/qmgr: E6A372DC065D: removed
But this configuration is not enough, as your emails will mostly end up in spam. You will need to add an SPF, PTR and DKIM record. You may still get emails delivered in spam due to your IP address being blacklisted, mostly due to a previous abuse of your vps.
An alternative or a better way would be to use a third party provider like Gmail or even Mailgun.
I use Mailgun as they give you 10,000 emails free every month as compared to Gmails 100 or so per day.
In “/etc/postfix/main.cf” you will need to add “smtp.mailgun.com” as your “relayhost”, enable “SASL” authentication so postfix can connect and authenticate to the remote Mailgun server.
Add or uncomment the following lines.
relayhost = [smtp.mailgun.org] smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes smtp_sasl_password_maps=static:your_username:your_password smtp_sasl_security_options=noanonymous
Postfix does not implement “SASL” authentication by itself, hence you will need to install “cyrus-sasl-plain”.
sudo yum install cyrus-sasl-plain
If you do not install this package on Centos 6 then you will get an error “SASL authentication failed; cannot authenticate to server smtp.mailgun.org[22.214.171.124]: no mechanism available)”
sudo service postfix restart
Securing Postfix with TLS
Postfix supports TLS a successor to SSL which allows you to encrypt data using key based authentication. I recommend reading http://www.postfix.org/TLS_README.html on how tls works with postfix.
In order to use TLS you will need to generate a private key and a certificate which is signed by a Certificate Authority. In this example, I will be using a Self Signed Certificate.
sudo yum install mod_ssl openssl # Generate private key openssl genrsa -out smtp.key 2048 # Generate CSR openssl req -new -key smtp.key -out smtp.csr # Generate Self Signed Key openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in smtp.csr -signkey smtp.key -out smtp.crt # Copy the files to the correct locations cp smtp.crt /etc/pki/tls/certs cp smtp.key /etc/pki/tls/private/smtp.key cp smtp.csr /etc/pki/tls/private/smtp.csr
Open the postfix configuration files and add the following parameteres
sudo vim /etc/postfix/main.cf smtp_tls_security_level = may smtpd_tls_security_level = may smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/pki/tls/private/smtp.key smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/pki/tls/certs smtp_tls_CAfile = /etc/ssl/certs/ca.crt smtp_tls_loglevel = 1
Security level “may” means announce STARTTLS support to remote SMTP clients, but clients do no need to use encryption., I have used it here as per mailgun docs, but you can use “encrypt” if you want to force TLS encryption.
service postfix restart #Send a test email echo test mail | mail -s "test" firstname.lastname@example.org && sudo tail -f /var/log/maillog
You should see the below message
Aug 21 00:00:06 vps postfix/smtp: setting up TLS connection to smtp.mailgun.org[126.96.36.199]:587 Aug 21 00:00:06 vps postfix/smtp: Trusted TLS connection established to smtp.mailgun.org[188.8.131.52]:587: TLSv1.2 with cipher AES256-GCM-SHA384 (256/256 bits)
You can comment out the below parameter once everything is successful.
“smtp_tls_loglevel = 1”
I recommend you also read How to confiigure fail2ban to block Brute Force IP’s by scanning postfix logs else your server may be compromised.